conceptual framework

The glossary of concepts that are provided here are derived from international standards about hate crimes, discrimination and intolerance. It includes contributions from United Nations, OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe), Council of Europe and European Union.

  • Hate Crime: “Any criminal offense, including offenses against persons and property where the victim, place or object of the prejudice are selected because of their connection, affiliation, support and actual and supposed membership to a group that can be based on “race “ prejudices by national or ethnic origin, language, color, religion, age, physical or mental disability, sexual orientation or other similar factors, whether real or imagined” OSCE (2003 )
  • Hate Speech: “All forms of expression which spread, incite, promote or justify racial hatred, xenophobia, anti-Semitism or other forms of hatred based on intolerance, including intolerance expressed by aggressive nationalism and ethnocentrism, discrimination and hostility against minorities, immigrants and people of immigrant origin. COUNCIL OF EUROPE (1997)
  • Hate Incident: “Any incident which is perceived as an offense motivated by intolerance on the part of the victim or any other person”. Recommendation n.11 of the general policy of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) Council of Europe.


  • RACISM: A worldview, attitude, behavior and all demonstrations involving affirmation of inferiority of some ethnic groups such as the superiority of others. Some definitions of racism also include discriminatory behaviors and beliefs based on cultural, national or religious stereotypes. Historically, racism was a major driving force behind the Slave Trade. In that sense, the most criminal expressions appear in slavery, apartheid, ethnic cleansing and the Holocaust.
  • XENOPHOBIA: Hostility, rejection or hatred towards foreigners or people perceived as such. It is an ethnocentric bias towards culture, values ​​and traditions from abroad and it is showed from rejection, contempt and threats, segregation, disenfranchisement to major forms as assaults and murders.
  • HOMOPHOBIA: Hatred towards homosexuals, based on an obsessive aversion that may eventually include not only people and their practices, but also any related issue to them.
  • TRANSPHOBIA: Hate, dislike and rejection of transgender people based on their internal gender identity. Transgender people also experience homophobia from people who incorrectly associate gender identity as a kind of homosexuality.
  • ANTIGYPSYISM/ROMAPHOBIA: All manifestations of ethnic hatred against the Roma people. After the Nazi genocide, they still remain very stigmatized as criminals, suffering discrimination, hatred, hostility and violence.
  • MISOGYNY *: Aversion or hatred of women, an ideological or psychological tendency that despise women as gender and all things considered “feminine”.
  • ANTISEMITISM: Hostility towards Jewish people based on a combination of religious, racial, cultural and ethnic prejudices. It also includes deny or distort the Nazi Holocaust.
  • ISLAMOPHOBIA: Feeling and attitude of rejection and hostility towards Islam and by extension to all Muslim people and their social reality.
  • PENIAPHOBIA: Aversion and contempt for the poor. Hatred of poor people without belongings, especially the “homeless”.
  • PHOBIA ABOUT DISABLED PEOPLE: Rejection and contempt towards people with physical or mental dysfunction, seeing them as a burden on society, using this argument as a leading reason to their dehumanization.
  • Other Expressions of Intolerance: Any ideological type of hate, political, trade union hatred, intolerance by gender, aesthetic aversion, for obesity, for geographical or ethnic origin also by language, age or other similar factors, whether real or perceived.

* The misogyny hate crimes are not incorporated in this research because there is already a record of such crimes on the website

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